The papers presented give the state of the art on leaching of materials and products, demonstration projects and product development.
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Results of workshops on immobilisation and quality control are also presented. A good overview of the latest results on the application of various materials in construction, based on both technical and environmental data, is provided. The book provides a unique opportunity for environmental researchers, environmental consultants, policy-makers, and those involved in the construction industry to gain the latest information on the subject.
Waste materials in construction : proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Implications of Construction with Waste Materials, Maastricht, the Netherlands, November by Th. G Aalbers 26 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Waste Materials in Construction contains papers from the first international conference on the environmental implications of construction with waste materials held in Maastricht in November, The three key themes of the conference are technical options for the application of waste materials in products for the construction industry, the resulting chemical and environmental aspects thereof, and legislation policies as they pertain to waste management.
There has been a great deal of laboratory testing carried out in several countries on the impact of waste-derived products on the environment since most of these products are used in close contact with the soil eg. There is however, no consensus as to the methodologies possible for assessing the environmental behaviour of waste residue and the consequences of using them nor for developing standards to ensure environmentally safe re-use. The first half of the conference addresses this problem of lack of consensus. The second half deals with technical solutions and procedures to use waste materials for the production of construction materials.
Environmental aspects of construction with waste materials : proceeding[s] of the International Conference on Environmental Implications of Construction Materials and Technology Developments, Maastricht, the Netherlands, June by Th. G Aalbers 19 editions published in in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide The concept of Sustainable Development, implicating the protection of soil and groundwater, the limitation of waste production and the re-use of soild waste materials is still the leading theme of WASCON ' Although it is clearly recognized in most countries that products derived from solid waste materials can be applied as construction materials, research is still needed to assess various environmental problems.
Quarries reinforcement with stabilised bottom ashes A.
Bouchelaghem et al. Integration of testing protocols for evalution of contaminant release from monolithic and granular wastes D.
Kosson, H. Study of cement-based mortars containing Spanish ground sewage sludge ash J. Monzo et al. Fly ash - useful material for preventing concrete corrosion S. Mileti et al. A study of potential of utilising electric arc furnace slag as filling material in concrete C. Aran Aran.
Low lime binders based on fluidized bed ash J. Drottner, J. Using chemfronts, a geochemical transport program, to simulate leaching from waste materials C. Verification of laboratory-field leaching behaviour of coal fly ash and MSWI bottom ash as a roadbase material J. Schreurs et al. The application of incinerator bottom ash in road construction K.
Phil Acid resistance of different monolithic binders and solidified wastes J.
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Stegemann, C. Research and standardization programme for determination of leaching behaviour of construction materials and wastes in the Netherlands R. Utilisation of flue gas desulphurisation by-products in the cellular concrete technology W. Brylicki, A. Influence of the Ca content on the coal fly ash features in some innovative applications P. Catalfamo et al. Valorization of lead-zinc primary smelter slags D. Burning of plastic waste will add to the toxic gaseous emissions in the atmosphere, polluting the air and destroying the ozone layer and its protective properties, thereby increasing the risk of health hazards, including cancers.
Apart from that, the large quantity of plastic waste that is generated could create financial and socio-economic losses for governments at large when they try to manage it. It is estimated that over In addition, plastic wastes seem to be part of almost all the waste generated at home. This is consistent with earlier studies that suggested that the increased of use of plastics is due to changes in life style and industrialization in which plastic packages replace other forms of packaging [ 26 , 27 ]. The best practice is to store domestic waste in covered plastic bins. However, only The use of covered plastic bins protects the waste from direct exposure to flies, vermin, and scavengers, and they also prevent odour nuisances and unsightliness [ 25 , 26 , 28 ].
The study also reveals that there has not been a significant change from what existed in Accra during [ 8 ]. Unfortunately, indiscriminate open dumping of wastes poses significant threats to public health and the environment if they are not stored, collected and disposed of properly [ 29 ]. It also makes a travesty of solid waste regulations and defeats the national environmental sanitation policy of maintaining a clean, safe and pleasant physical environment for human settlements [ 7 ].
To ensure adherence to the solid waste policies, district, municipal, and metropolitan assemblies will have to develop and strictly enforce regulations in communities. Most of the respondents did not separate their waste; out of the households, only 63 This situation creates a suitable environment for breeding of disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and cockroaches, and the proliferation of rodents, such as rats and mice, which pose threats to public health [ 31 ].
The use of colour coded containers to store different types of solid waste, which has been in practice in developed countries for over four decades, is reported to offer a more cost-effective waste management service, since it improves household waste separation and reduces the amount of waste in landfills [ 29 ].
Although The Ghana landfill guideline noted that the current practice of solid waste disposal in the country has been largely by uncontrolled dumping in places, such as abandoned quarry sites, valleys, beaches, and drains. These dumping sites are major threats to human health and the environment [ 32 ]. The waste collection service in the city is performed by the private sector under various agreements with the metropolitan assembly, as well as the use communal bins provided by private contractors.
However, the services provided by the private sector were reported to be unsatisfactory.
Overall, Most respondents complained of irregular patterns in waste collection and the high cost of contracting with private collectors. The Millennium Development Goals provide a framework for assessing the relevance and importance of private sector participation in solid waste management in our efforts to improve the lives of urban dwellers.
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The impact of private sector participation in solid waste management on these goals cannot be ignored, particularly with respect to Goal 7, which emphasises ensuring environmental sustainability [ 33 , 34 ]. According to the EPA, solid waste services in most developing countries generally do not satisfy the full demand in urban areas [ 35 ]. The perceptions of the respondents towards waste management generally seemed to be fairly low.
Since these people did not see disposal as an important issue, it is not likely that they will improve their waste disposal practices and management practices. This finding, however, is not consistent with other studies that suggested that general waste management in Ghana is perceived as the responsibility of the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, which supervises the decentralized MMDAs [ 18 ]. The compound houses were densely populated, which may set the pace for the generation of more waste in the community, so the attitudes of a few about waste disposal could result in the whole compound house practicing similar disposal styles or behaviours.
Dense populations and increased consumption have been shown to increase more waste and increase disposal problems [ 18 ]. The present study also revealed that This could be because This confirms the growing perception in Ghana that low levels of education contribute to poor waste management practices in the country. Other factors that contribute to this situation are poor attitudes, lack of concern about environmental issues, high levels of poverty and misguided waste disposal practices [ 19 ].
Increasing rural-urban migration into the Ga East municipality compounds the problem of waste management, as citizens do not take responsibility for adequate waste disposal and, rather, rely on government to dispose of waste. This, in part, may be due to the poor attitudes of the people and their lack of concern about the environment and public health [ 5 ].
This high level of knowledge on the effects of waste management does not correspond with the observed practices. The household heads who educate the occupants of the home have several reasons for properly disposing of waste, including cleanliness, fear of diseases, and odour. The solid waste generated at home was largely food debris and plastic, which are disposed without separation and stored in uncovered plastic bins.
Some of the waste is disposed appropriately at communal sites, while some of it is disposed by the practice of crude dumping in gutters, holes, streets, and bushes. Most respondents said they would be happier if more collecting bins were provided and there was regular collection of solid waste for the disposal sites, and some were willing to pay more if the charges were increased.
The majority of the households were aware of the health implication of waste, although some had no basic education. Many perceived that children should be responsible for waste management.
Most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. Proper waste management can lead to improvement in the quality of the environment while, on the other hand, poor waste management can lead to air pollution and breeding of mosquitos, thus causing disease [ 5 , 24 ]. The study found that the majority of the solid waste generated at home was largely food debris and plastics, which were mainly stored in uncovered plastic containers and disposed without separation.
Although waste was disposed appropriately at communal sites, some community members practiced crude dumping in any available space, including gutters, holes, streets, and bushes. Although, indiscriminate dumping was frequently done, the community expressed interest in controlling waste disposal through the use of bins and regular collection to dump sites.
The communities cherished improved waste management practices and were willing to pay for improved services. Although this study fills an important gap in the literature, there are a few limitations that are worth noting. The survey did not obtain the determined sample size, due to the fact that some urban dwellers refused to participate in the survey.
Out of the respondents who were selected for the sample, 35 respondents refused to participant in the study. Although there was a non-response rate of 4. The qualitative data were derived from highly technical and influential people in the communities who were purposively selected and, therefore, the findings from the in-depth interviews are not necessarily indicative of the situation in all urban communities.
Although, there is no reason to doubt the validity of the findings, they could have been augmented by Focus Group Discussions with community members. All the authors read and approved the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMC Public Health.
Waste to Wealth Overview
Published online Jul 8. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Ramatta Massa Yoada: moc. Received Jan 1; Accepted Jul 2.