The New Uprooted: Single Mothers in Urban Life

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Around 40 percent of black toyear-olds in Chicago are out of work and out of school today, compared with 7 percent of white to year-olds in Chicago.

The New Uprooted Single Mothers In Urban Life

Some researchers say that the lack of economic opportunities for youth has given rise to a cycle of violence that ravages neighborhoods on the South Side. Murders in Chicago increased by 58 percent between and , and the number of nonfatal shootings grew by 43 percent, according to the University of Chicago Crime Lab. As violence racks neighborhoods, the cycle of disinvestment continues, as more businesses and families leave.

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In Chicago, unlike many global cities, the neighborhoods that struggled 30 years ago are still the neighborhoods that struggle today. Chicago residents have what Robert J. Many people, black and white, see large swaths of Chicago as places they would never live, no matter how affordable the rents or good the amenities. So while wealth is creeping into some poor neighborhoods in cities like New York or Los Angeles as upper-class people move back to cities, less gentrification has taken place in poor, black neighborhoods in Chicago. As middle-class residents stay out of such neighborhoods, so too do the businesses that they would patronize.

The decades-old legacies of segregation, far from being reversed, are instead being reinforced. As the divide between rural and urban Americans becomes more pronounced, commentators from all over the political spectrum have advice for the white low-income people living in economically depressed rural areas: M ove.

Move to big cities , or to booming states like Texas, or to anywhere that is not a low-opportunity town that has seen economic opportunity pass it by. The idea is that global cities like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Seattle will improve the fortunes of anybody who moves there, through higher wages and more work opportunities.

African Americans living in segregated neighborhoods in Chicago actually have worse economic outcomes than African Americans in less-prosperous cities. Meanwhile, in comparable cities like Los Angeles and Washington, D. About 34 percent of African Americans in Chicago live in relative poverty, meaning they earn less than half of the local minimum wage. The unemployment rate for blacks in the Chicago metropolitan area in the beginning of this year was In San Antonio, by contrast, the unemployment rate for blacks was 6. Chicago, the most segregated city in America, shows what happens when groups are separated by race and income for decades.

Dawson faced many of the same challenges of other people who grew up in rough neighborhoods in Chicago—he was raised by a single mother, he struggled with alcoholism, and his cousin, who was like a brother to him, was murdered in Englewood. He always tried to leave his neighborhood as much as he could, he told me, taking the train downtown to walk around the Loop, and just people-watch. Leaving his neighborhood illuminated to him just how depressed it was. Dawson now works for a downtown nonprofit, Cara Chicago, which helps homeless and at-risk individuals find jobs.

He attributes his success to leaving the neighborhood where he lived. Housing in high-opportunity neighborhoods is expensive. After Chicago began in the s to dismantle its public-housing complexes, for example, families received vouchers that they could use to move elsewhere. But many of the families still ended up in impoverished neighborhoods, for many reasons.

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A federal program that would have allowed voucher holders to use the vouchers in more upscale neighborhoods in selected cities, including Chicago, was suspended by the Trump administration in August. Of course, it might not be logical to try to uproot every black Chicago resident who lives in concentrated poverty to a better neighborhood. People leaving the neighborhood is part of what led to this decimation in the first place. This has happened only to a small degree so far.

More than a year ago, for example, developers opened a new shopping complex with a Whole Foods, Chipotle, and Starbucks in a struggling area of Englewood. Need help? How do I find a book? Can I borrow this item? Can I get a copy? Can I view this online? Ask a librarian.

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Teen Mothers in Urban Poverty 7. To the extent that the poor have any choice in seeing a physician, SDM in no way undermines this choice. In other words, our present system allows only options A and B above.

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The proposal under consideration is to allow A, B and C. Despite what has been said in favor of SDM, this much must be admitted: it is ultimately an empirical conjecture that the SDM option would yield better health outcomes for the uninsured. Thus, the experimental question is whether having SDM as an additional option provides better health outcomes for the uninsured as opposed to receiving what medical attention the uninsured receive at present.

So, the experimental group would receive instruction on using Internet based software to self-diagnose and self-medicate for certain conditions, e. This group would be matched with cohorts from the general population of the uninsured and matched for similar health indices, e.

The New Uprooted Single Mothers In Urban Life

After six months or so, the health outcomes for the two groups could be compared. The fact that those in the experimental group are almost certainly going to have more knowledge about their health, a better understanding of treatment, and more likely to get treatment, strongly suggests that the health outcomes of the experimental group will be significantly better.

Given what we know about the poor state of health of the uninsured, it seems a very good bet that the addition of the SDM option will improve their condition compared with controls. Notice that the conjecture here is not that the experimental group will have better heath outcomes than those with insurance. This is an entirely different question.

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It could be addressed in the same study by giving a second experimental group, drawn from the uninsured, medical insurance for the same period. So, imagine three groups of 1, individuals each. Group A is the control group who receive what little medical care the uninsured now presently get. Group B would have the option of self-diagnosing and self-medicating, and Group C would be provided with medical insurance.

I suspect the differences between Group B and Group C would be much less than some might imagine. Physicians may beat out the software on the diagnoses stage, but those who are charged with self-diagnosing and self-medicating are probably more likely to follow through, and so may have an advantage on the treatment end. Non-compliance with physician directives for treatment and follow-up visits can be quite high, e. An objection might be raised on behalf of public health. A preliminary response is that the question is poorly phrased: we should ask whether there would be further antibiotic resistance due to over prescription, since over prescription is presently prevalent with physician prescription McKee et al.

There is an epidemiological and a moral reply to this objection. The epidemiological reply questions whether the use of antibiotics will increase for society as a whole. Consider again our mother of two. Suppose she has strep throat but does not take antibiotics. She will be contagious for weeks compared to only a few days if she took antibiotics.