They may not make sense right now, just like zero didn't "make sense" to the Romans. We need new real-world relationships like debt for them to click. You: Negative numbers are a great idea, but don't inherently exist. It's a label we apply to a concept.

### Math Education

You: Ah. So the actual number I have -3 or 0 depends on whether I think he'll pay me back. I didn't realize my opinion changed how counting worked. In my world, I had zero the whole time. You: Ok, so he returns 3 cows and we jump 6, from -3 to 3?

- Conferences.
- AMS :: Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society.
- The Blood Machine (The Impostor, Book 2).
- A Statistical Quantum Theory of Regular Reflection and Refraction.

Any other new arithmetic I should be aware of? What does sqrt cows look like?

We've created a "negative number" model to help with bookkeeping, even though you can't hold -3 cows in your hand. I purposefully used a different interpretation of what "negative" means: it's a different counting system, just like Roman numerals and decimals are different counting systems. By the way, negative numbers weren't accepted by many people, including Western mathematicians, until the s. The idea of a negative was considered "absurd".

### History Topics

Negative numbers do seem strange unless you can see how they represent complex real-world relationships, like debt. A university professor went to visit a famous Zen master. While the master quietly served tea, the professor talked about Zen. The master poured the visitor's cup to the brim, and then kept pouring.

The professor watched the overflowing cup until he could no longer restrain himself. No more will go in! Sure, some models appear to have no use: "What good are imaginary numbers?

- The English-Vernacular Divide: Postcolonial Language Politics and Practice (Bilingual Education and Biligualism).
- Stability of a Quartic Functional Equation.
- Evolution Equations & Control Theory.
- Regularity Properties of Functional Equations in Several Variables: 8 (Advances in Mathematics).

It's a valid question, with an intuitive answer. The use of imaginary numbers is limited by our imagination and understanding -- just like negative numbers are "useless" unless you have the idea of debt, imaginary numbers can be confusing because we don't truly understand the relationship they represent. Math provides models; understand their relationships and apply them to real-world objects.

Developing intuition makes learning fun -- even accounting isn't bad when you understand the problems it solves. I want to cover complex numbers , calculus and other elusive topics by focusing on relationships, not proofs and mechanics. BetterExplained helps k monthly readers with friendly, insightful math lessons more.

How to Develop a Mindset for Math. Math uses made-up rules to create models and relationships. When learning, I ask: What relationship does this model represent? What real-world items share this relationship? Does that relationship make sense to me? Math Education Textbooks rarely focus on understanding; it's mostly solving problems with "plug and chug" formulas. It saddens me that beautiful ideas get such a rote treatment: The Pythagorean Theorem is not just about triangles.

It is about the relationship between similar shapes, the distance between any set of numbers, and much more. It is about the fundamental relationships between all growth rates. The natural log is not just an inverse function. It is about the amount of time things need to grow. Math Evolves Over Time I consider math as a way of thinking, and it's important to see how that thinking developed rather than only showing the result.

Several systems have developed over time: No system is right, and each has advantages: Unary system: Draw lines in the sand -- as simple as it gets. Great for keeping score in games; you can add to a number without erasing and rewriting. Roman Numerals: More advanced unary, with shortcuts for large numbers. Decimals : Huge realization that numbers can use a "positional" system with place and zero. Binary: Simplest positional system two digits, on vs off so it's great for mechanical devices. Scientific Notation: Extremely compact, can easily gauge a number's size and precision 1E3 vs 1.

## Publications

Even then, negative numbers may not exist in the way we think, as you convince me here: You: Negative numbers are a great idea, but don't inherently exist. Me: Sure they do. You: Ok, show me -3 cows. Me: Well, um You: Ok, you have zero cows.

Notes L. Wilkens, Spectral synthesis and residually finite dimensional algebra, to appear in J. Algebra Appl. Vati, Moment functions on hypergroup joins, Adv. Pure Appl. Tabatabaie and B. Szekelyhidi and S. Budapest, Sect. Operator Theory, vol. Szekelyhidi and K. Vati, Functional equations on hypergroup joins, Arch. Basel , vol. Szekelyhidi, Invariant means on double coset spaces, Periodica Math. Szekelyhidi, Spherical spectral synthesis, Acta Math. Szekelyhidi and L. Szekelyhidi, On the principal ideal theorem and spectral synthesis on discrete Abelian groups, Acta Math.

Almira and L. Debrecen, vol. Wilkens, Spectral analysis and synthesis on varieties, Jour. Wilkens, Non-synthesizable varieties, Jour. Srivastava, and P. Georgiev eds.

## Antal Jarai - Google Scholar Citations

Vajday, Functional equations on the SU 2 -hypergroup, Math. Pannonica, vol. Vajday, A moment problem on some types of hypergroups, Ann.

Budapest, vol. Vajday, Spectral analysis on commutative hyper-groups, Aequationes Math. Orosz and L. Sci Budapest, Sect. Laczkovich and L.